Top Side Layout Bottom Side Layout Table 1. Connections to the EVM module can be made by inserting stripped wire, or using banana plugs for the power supply and output connections. The inputs accept standard RCA plugs.
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Load from a V Supply? Operates from 10 V to 30 V? Four Selectable, Fixed-Gain Settings? Single-Ended Analog Inputs? The TPAD2 can drive stereo speakers as low as 4?. The efficiency of the TPAD2 eliminates the need for an external heat sink when playing music.
The gain of the amplifier is controlled by two gain select pins. The gain selections are 20, 26, 32, 36 dB. The patented start-up and shut-down sequences minimize pop noise in the speakers without additional circuitry. Products conform to specifications per the terms of the Texas Instruments standard warranty. Production processing does not necessarily include testing of all parameters. The leads should be shorted together or the device placed in conductive foam during storage or handling to prevent electrostatic damage to the MOS gates.
Also controls start-up time via external capacitor sizing. P High-voltage analog power supply. Thermal pad should be soldered down on all applications to properly secure device to printed wiring board. These are stress ratings only, and functional operations of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated under recommended operating conditions is not implied. Exposure to absolute-maximum-rated conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
Hz Figure 1. Hz Figure 3. Hz Figure 2. Output Power? W Figure 4. W Figure 5. Hz Figure 7. Hz Figure 6. Hz 0 k Figure 8. Hz 0 k Figure 9. Supply Voltage? Dashed line represents thermally limited region. Figure W Figure Supply Current? Hz 10k 20k Figure Hz Figure There are two main configurations that may be used. The traditional class-D modulation scheme, which is used in the TPAD2 BTL configuration, has a differential output where each output is degrees out of phase and changes from ground to the supply voltage, VCC.
The class-D modulation scheme with voltage and current waveforms is shown in Figure 23 and Figure Power-supply pumping is a rise in the local supply voltage due to energy being driven back to the supply by operation of the class-D amplifier. This phenomenon is most evident at low audio frequencies and when both channels are operating at the same frequency and phase. At low levels, power supply pumping results in distortion in the audio output due to fluctuations in supply voltage.
At higher levels, pumping can cause the overvoltage protection to operate, which temporarily shuts down the audio output. Because most audio is highly correlated, this causes the supply pumping to be out of phase and not as severe. If this is not enough, the amount of bulk capacitance on the supply must be increased. Also, improvement is realized by hooking other supplies to this node which sinks some of the excess current.
Power supply pumping should be tested by operating the amplifier at low frequencies and high output levels. The gains listed in Table 2 are realized by changing the taps on the input resistors and feedback resistors inside the amplifier. This causes the input impedance ZI to be dependent on the gain setting. The actual gain settings are controlled by ratios of resistors, so the gain variation from part-to-part is small.
For design purposes, the input network discussed in the next section should be designed assuming an input impedance of 8 k? At the higher gain settings, the input impedance could increase as high as 72 k?. As a result, if a single capacitor is used in the input high-pass filter, the —3-dB or cutoff frequency may change when changing gain steps.
Use the ZI values given in Table 2. In this case, CI and the input impedance of the amplifier ZI form a high-pass filter with the corner frequency determined in Equation 2. Consider the example where ZI is 20 k? Equation 2 is reconfigured as Equation 3.
F; so, one would likely choose a value of 0. A further consideration for this capacitor is the leakage path from the input source through the input network CI and the feedback network to the load. This leakage current creates a dc offset voltage at the input to the amplifier that reduces useful headroom, especially in high-gain applications. For this reason, a low-leakage tantalum or ceramic capacitor is the best choice. Note that it is important to confirm the capacitor polarity in the application.
Additionally, lead-free solder can create dc offset voltages, and it is important to ensure that boards are cleaned properly. There are several possible configurations depending on the speaker impedance, and whether the output configuration is single ended SE or bridge-tied load BTL.
Table 4 lists the recommended values for the filter components. It is important to use a high-quality capacitor in this application. A rating of at least X7R is required. Power-supply decoupling also prevents oscillations for long lead lengths between the amplifier and the speaker. The optimum decoupling is achieved by using two capacitors of different types that target different types of noise on the power-supply leads.
For higher-frequency transients, spikes, or digital hash on the line, a good low equivalent-series-resistance ESR ceramic capacitor, typically 0. F, placed as close as possible to the device VCC lead works best. The PVCC terminals provide the power to the output transistors, so a ?
F or larger capacitor should be placed on each PVCC terminal. A ? F capacitor on the AVCC terminal is adequate. These capacitors must be properly derated for voltage and ripple current rating to ensure reliability. Therefore, they require bootstrap capacitors for the high side of each output to turn on correctly. A nF ceramic capacitor, rated for at least 25 V, must be connected from each output to its corresponding bootstrap input.
The bootstrap capacitors connected between the BSx pins and their corresponding outputs function as a floating power supply for the high-side N-channel power MOSFET gate-drive circuitry.
During each high-side switching cycle, the bootstrap capacitors hold the gate-to-source voltage high enough to keep the high-side MOSFETs turned on.
The external capacitor for this reference CBYP is a critical component and serves several important functions. During start-up or recovery from shutdown mode, CBYP determines the rate at which the amplifier starts. The start up time is proportional to 0. The second function is to reduce noise produced by the power supply caused by coupling with the output drive signal.
The inputs capacitors should have the same value. A ceramic or tantalum low-ESR capacitor is recommended. For the best power-up pop performance, place the amplifier in the shutdown or mute mode prior to applying the power-supply voltage. A logic low on this pin enables the outputs. The MUTE terminal should never be left floating.
A real as opposed to ideal capacitor can be modeled simply as a resistor in series with an ideal capacitor. The voltage drop across this resistor minimizes the beneficial effects of the capacitor in the circuit.
The lower the equivalent value of this resistance, the more the real capacitor behaves like an ideal capacitor. Directly at the device terminals, the protection circuitry prevents damage to device during output-to-output, output-to-ground, and output-to-supply. When a short circuit is detected on the outputs, the part immediately disables the output drive.
This is an unlatched fault. Normal operation is restored when the fault is removed. Once the die temperature exceeds the thermal set point, the device enters into the shutdown state and the outputs are disabled.
This is not a latched fault. The device begins normal operation at this point with no external system interaction. Decoupling capacitors—The high-frequency 0. Large ?
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