MACCABEE BIBLE PDF

He and his five sons fled to the wilderness of Judah. The Maccabees destroyed pagan altars in the villages, circumcised boys and forced Jews into outlawry. After the victory, the Maccabees entered Jerusalem in triumph and ritually cleansed the Temple , reestablishing traditional Jewish worship there and installing Jonathan Maccabee as high priest. A large Seleucid army was sent to quash the revolt, but returned to Syria on the death of Antiochus IV.

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He and his five sons fled to the wilderness of Judah. The Maccabees destroyed pagan altars in the villages, circumcised boys and forced Jews into outlawry. After the victory, the Maccabees entered Jerusalem in triumph and ritually cleansed the Temple , reestablishing traditional Jewish worship there and installing Jonathan Maccabee as high priest. A large Seleucid army was sent to quash the revolt, but returned to Syria on the death of Antiochus IV.

Its commander Lysias, preoccupied with internal Seleucid affairs, agreed to a political compromise that restored religious freedom. According to rabbinic tradition , the victorious Maccabees could only find a small jug of oil that had remained uncontaminated by virtue of a seal, and although it only contained enough oil to sustain the Menorah for one day, it miraculously lasted for eight days, by which time further oil could be procured.

When the revolt began under the leadership of Mattathias, it was seen as a war for religious freedom to end the oppression of the Seleucids. However, as the Maccabees realized how successful they had been, many wanted to continue the revolt and conquer other lands with Jewish populations or to convert their peoples. This policy exacerbated the divide between the Pharisees and Sadducees under later Hasmonean monarchs such as Alexander Jannaeus.

Jonathan made treaties with various foreign states, causing further dissent between those who merely desired religious freedom and those who sought greater power. He expelled the garrison from the Acra in Jerusalem.

Their decree became the basis of the Hasmonean kingdom. Shortly after, the Roman senate renewed its alliance with the Hasmonean kingdom and commanded its allies in the eastern Mediterranean to do so also.

When Simon refused to give up the territory he had conquered, Antiochus took them by force. Antiochus conquered the entire district of Judea, but refrained from attacking the Temple or interfering with Jewish observances. Mention in the Bible[ edit ] Main article: Books of the Maccabees The Maccabean story is preserved in the books of the First and Second Maccabees , which describe in detail the re-dedication of the Temple in Jerusalem and the lighting of the menorah.

These books are not part of the Tanakh Hebrew Bible which came from the Jewish canon; however, they were part of the Alexandrian canon which is also called the Septuagint sometimes abbreviated LXX. They are not included in the Old Testament books in most Protestant Bibles since most Protestants consider the books apocryphal. The miracle of the one-day supply of oil miraculously lasting eight days is first described in the Talmud , committed to writing about years after the events described in the books of Maccabees.

Main article: Woman with seven sons The second and fourth books of the Maccabees recount the martyrdom of seven Jewish brothers, their mother and their teacher.

Although these are not said to be of the Maccabee family, they are referred to in Christianity as the Holy Maccabean Martyrs or the Holy Maccabees. The first of these books states that their father was a Benjamite named Maccabeus, and that three of the brothers, who are called Abya, Seela, and Fentos, were captured and martyred for leading a guerilla war against Antiochus Epiphanes. Braginskaya comes to the conclusion that the mosaic reflects the symbolic story of the Maccabees.

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Why the Maccabees Aren’t in the Bible

It describes the refusal of Mattathias to perform pagan religious rites, the ensuing Jewish revolt against Syrian hegemony , the political machinations whereby Demetrius II of Syria granted Judaea its independence, and the election of Simon as both high priest and secular ruler of the Judaean Jews. I Maccabees is the only contemporary source for the civil wars in Judaea, and the only surviving one for Judaean-Syrian relations after the reign of Antiochus IV. The historical integrity of the book, which was compiled from official written sources, oral tradition, and eyewitness reporting, is attested to by the absence of almost all of the conventions of the Hellenistic rhetorical school of historiography and by its uncritical use by the later Jewish historian Josephus. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today The Second Book of the Maccabees. In general, its chronology coheres with that of I Maccabees.

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The Books of the Maccabees

The doctrine expressed in the book reflects traditional Jewish teaching, without later doctrines found, for example, in 2 Maccabees. The First Book of Maccabees also gives a list of Jewish colonies scattered elsewhere through the Mediterranean at the time. He then imposes a tax and establishes a fortress in Jerusalem. Antiochus then tries to suppress public observance of Jewish laws, in an attempt to secure control over the Jews.

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