Festinger also made important contributions to the study of group behaviour , self-evaluation, and attitude change. Education Festinger graduated with a B. He then entered the University of Iowa , where he studied with the German-born social psychologist Kurt Lewin and obtained a Ph. He stayed there until the end of World War II.
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Festinger also made important contributions to the study of group behaviour , self-evaluation, and attitude change. Education Festinger graduated with a B. He then entered the University of Iowa , where he studied with the German-born social psychologist Kurt Lewin and obtained a Ph. He stayed there until the end of World War II. The centre was committed to the application of psychological concepts and methods to solve social problems, and it attracted many talented students, including Stanley Schachter and Harold Kelley.
An important early research project was based on attitude surveys of residents in married student housing. The study documented a textbook phenomenon: friendships were more likely to occur the closer the people were physically even by just a few yards.
Similarity in attitudes was also critical: attitudes of residents tended to converge, but residents who held deviant attitudes were likely to be social isolates. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription.
Subscribe today One central idea for Festinger at this time was that group members acquired similar beliefs and opinions because of social pressures toward uniformity or fitting in. In his informal communication theory , he proposed that people are susceptible to social pressures when they are attracted to a group. Such attraction occurs because some goals can be pursued successfully only with the cooperation of others or because groups provide validation about social reality, which is necessary because some opinions and beliefs cannot be tested directly or objectively e.
To test the theory, Festinger and his students conducted a series of laboratory experiments. Groups or clubs were formed of previously unacquainted individuals who were asked to discuss various issues. Factors such as types of goals, need for social reality, attractiveness, issue relevance, and so on were manipulated.
In some experiments, accomplices posed as subjects and played scripted roles as group members with deviating or consensual opinions. One adopted the majority view i. Observers coded group discussion behaviours.
The actual subjects tried to persuade the other discussion partners. The mode was readily accepted, as was the slider after adopting the majority view. Initially, much communication was directed at the deviate, but communication declined when the deviate proved impossible to convince, and the deviate was nominated for the most undesirable club assignments.
Consistent with the theory, group goals or social reality were achieved by striving for group consensus , the pressures to obtain uniformity were manifested via different behavioral routes, and deviates were rejected. Festinger realized that progress in any science required methods appropriate to that field. Accordingly, social psychology needed its own experimental approach.
In Festinger moved to a tenure-track position at the University of Minnesota , where Schachter was already on the faculty.
At the University of Minnesota, Festinger developed social comparison theory, his second major contribution to social psychology. Informal social communication theory was about the power of the group over the person. In contrast, social comparison theory emphasized how individuals evaluate their own opinions and abilities against those of others. Social comparison theory posited that people evaluate their abilities and opinions by comparing them with those of others when it is not feasible to test them directly.
Comparison leads to pressures toward uniformity i. For opinions, agreement with others who presumably are also motivated to hold correct views tends to make people feel more confident. For abilities, observing those with similar abilities allows people to learn what actions they are capable of.
Social comparison theory also recognizes a distinctive feature of abilities. People want to be slightly better than everyone else because the desire to be better or to improve is emphasized in Western cultures. Leon Festinger.
La tercera estrategia se basa en modificar superficialmente el pensamiento o creencia con el que ha ocurrido el conflicto, sin llegar a abandonarlo del todo. Esto se debe a que normalmente todas las alternativas entre las que tenemos que elegir tienen tanto puntos a favor como en contra, por lo que siempre tendremos que renunciar a algo que nos atrae. Esfuerzo Otra gran parte de las investigaciones relacionadas con la disonancia cognitiva han sido llevadas a cabo en el campo de las metas y el esfuerzo personal. Al ocurrir esto, tendemos a cambiar nuestros pensamientos sobre lo que hemos logrado para reducirla. Experimento de Festinger La disonancia cognitiva fue estudiada por primera vez en ideado por Leon Festinger. Festinger y sus colaboradores extrajeron dos conclusiones de este estudio. La primera es que cuando nos vemos obligados a hacer algo en contra de nuestra voluntad, podemos llegar a cambiar nuestras opiniones para evitar sentir que hemos perdido el tiempo.
Teoría de la Disonancia Cognitiva de Festinger