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Since then modern psychology has more and more aligned with the behaviorist view of man as a beast to be controlled by placing him in suitable controlled environments. Education, according to Wundt, was the subjecting the student to the proper "experiences" by which to form his identity and behavior. It eventually led to Pavlov, Stalin and Chinese Communist brainwashing. The first generation of Wundtian teachers founded "modern" departments of psychology all over the Western world, especially in America, aimed at submerging the student into the social organism. It was a perfect fit for the growing collectivist mentality and the centralizing of government, both in Europe and America.

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By the end of the first world war, Americans would notice increasingly a change in the way their children were being educated. In the succeeding decades, the same schools that once nurtured the American dream would become infested with drugs and crime, and high schools would be graduating students who could barely read, spell, or do simple arithmetic.

This report details the origins of a national metamorphosis, yet it is hardly definitive. Major changes in American education, along the same lines as those described herein and, in many cases, overlapping them , were wrought by the great Carnegie and Ford "philanthropies" and by a host of individuals i.

These initial and somewhat unexpected findings, however incomplete, are released in order to help others analyse more clearly this tragic transformation of the national character. Further research has simply substantiated and enlarged upon the thesis of this work.

The ongoing debasement of philosophy and ethics, and its social consequences, is a tangled tale and, where references are not pursued or fully detailed, it is not because of an unwillingness to answer the questions raised rather is it from a desire to suggest a broader context within which the story unfolds. Those who contend, with Wilhelm Wundt, that history and its processes are responsible for the formation of individuals and their views rather than the reverse will undoubtedly find this approach unpalatable; then again, not everyone would want this tale untangled.

Psychology, at that time, meant simply the study ology of the soul psyche , or mind. Perhaps the best descriptive biography of Wundt is contained in Professor Edwin G. See, also, Schultz, Duane P. Kovach, Historical Introduction to Modern Psychology, 6th ed. New York: Harcourt Brace, , for excellent overviews of the development of experimental psychology. He stayed there for only a year, and then accepted a chair in philosophy at the University of Leipzig, in Germany. He was to remain at Leipzig for the rest of his academic career, eventually being appointed rector of the university.

Wundt died in Those are some of the vital statistics. What they omit is that Wundt was the founder of experimental psychology and the force behind its dissemination throughout the western world. To Wundt, a thing made sense and was worth pursuing if it could be measured, quantified, and scientifically demonstrated. Seeing no way to do this with the human soul, he proposed that psychology concern itself solely with experience.

As Wundt put it Shipley, Thome, ed. A New Domain 3 Germany was the center of civilization: its scientific and technological advances were well-known.

The Germans excelled in the application of scientific terms and procedures to previously non-scientific areas. Throughout the revolutions and revolts of across Europe, the rise of the Socialist Internationals, and the forced unification of the new Germany by Otto von Bismarck, Germany was a flourishing center of culture and the from Beitrage zur Theorie der Sinneswahrnehmung Leipzig: C.

Winter, Herbart and Fechner are perhaps the direct lineal antecedents of Wundt in the area of education. See Boring, op. See also Dunkel, Harold B. Leipzig was no exception and one of its principal attractions was Wundt, who was attempting to place his ideas within the mainstream of German scientism by redefining psychology as a physiological rather than a philosophical subject.

Initially small and primitive, it soon increased to eleven rooms. He supplemented his new laboratory with a journal, Philosophical Studies, which became the official organ of both the new laboratory and the newly redefined "science" of psychology. Wundt stated his overall intention in clear terms: The work which I here present to the public is an attempt to mark out a new domain of science.

He was convinced that perceptions and experiences could be understood through measurable 5. Schultz, op. A New Domain 5 physiological reactions. Wundt noticed that reactions began with stimulation, followed by 1 perception, in which the experience exists within the individual; 2 "apperception," in which the body or so he thought identifies the stimulus and combines it with other stimuli, and 3 an act of will which results in 4 a reaction to the stimulus.

What was will? For Wundt, will was the direct result of the combination of perceived stimuli, not an independent, individual intention as psychology and philosophy had, with some notable exceptions, held up to that time. His personality was not sufficiently picturesque to make him stand out on that account; and his work shows no single, brilliant contribution to knowledge that can be readily circumscribed and labeled with a 6.

Here, Wundt was condensing and organizing the work of his contemporaries, with primary emphasis on the works of Herbart. Psychologist R. Rather, he worked over a thousand details, cleaning here, repairing there, filling a crack here, so that psychology leaving his hands was an improved, more coherent picture, but still a familiar one. But the man who sensed the movements of scientific thought as Wundt did, who embodied them in the first laboratory, who gave them form in an influential system, and who imparted them to enthusiastic students who were proud to carry on his work, has no small claim to the title often accorded him, that of father of modern psychology.

Wundt himself was not unaware of the debt psychology owed him, and not altogether indifferent as to whether or not it was recognized. In his role as father, he inclined toward the patriarchal, almost toward the papal; he reserved the right to speak with authority, to pronounce ex cathedra on psychology and psychologists, and to draw a distinct line of demarcation between authentic psychology and psychology of which he did not approve. The first was theoretical and will be taken up here.

The second is addressed in the next chapter, The Impress. He set out to prove that man is the summation of his experiences, of the stimuli which intrude upon his consciousness and unconsciousness. In directing the work of his students, he focused their energies on minute examinations of sensory perceptions, in an attempt to dissect and quantify every aspect of action and reaction.

What determined the difference between one individual and another in reaction time to stimuli? Why do some individuals combine stimuli differently than do others? What are the "laws" of the associations that can be formed between words? Wundt and his students regarded such questions as paramount.

Apple-tonCentury Company, Inc. Boring, op. To the experimental psychologist, however, education became the process of exposing the student to "meaningful" experiences so as to ensure desired reactions Explanations of even such forms of learning as abstraction and generalization demand of the neurones only growth, excitability, conductivity, and modifiability. The mind is the connectionsystem of man; and learning is the process of connecting.

The situation-response formula is adequate to cover learning of any sort, and the really influential factors in learning are readiness of the neurones, sequence in time, 9.

Hence, "to develop the faculties and powers of by teaching, instruction, or schooling," from Emery, H. A New Domain 9 belongingness, and satisfying consequences. Through these experiences, the individual will learn to respond to any given stimulus, with the "correct" response. The child is not, for example, thought capable of volitional control over his actions, or of deciding whether he will act or not act in a certain way: his actions are thought to be preconditioned and beyond his control, because he is a stimulus-response mechanism.

According to this thinking, he is his reactions. Pintner, Rudolph, et al. This group went on to establish experimental psychology throughout Europe and the United States: Through these students, the Leipzig Laboratory exercised an immense influence on the development of psychology. It served as the model for the many new laboratories that were developed in the latter part of the nineteenth century.

The many students who flocked to Leipzig, united as they were in point of view and common purpose, constituted a school of thought in psychology.

In succeeding years, one could go to almost any major European or American university and study the new psychology with a professor who had received his Ph. For the psychology of Leipzig was, in the eighties and nineties, the newest thing under the sun. It was the psychology for bold young radicals who believed that the ways of the mind could be measured and treated experimentally— and who possibly thought of themselves, in their private reflections, as pioneers on the newest frontier of science, push2.

The Impress 13 ing its method into reaches of experience that it had never before invaded. At any rate they threw themselves into their tasks with industry and zest. They became trained introspec-tionists and, adding introspection to the resources of the physiological laboratories, they attempted the minute analysis of sensation and perception.

They measured reaction-times, following their problems into numerous and widespread ramifications. They investigated verbal reactions, thus extending their researches into the field of association. They also developed the psychophysical methods and in addition made constant use of resources of the physiological laboratory.

With the prestige attached to having studied in Germany, these men found little difficulty in securing positions of influence at major American universities. Each became successful to a marked degree; each trained scores, often hundreds, of Ph.

Almost without exception, every one of them became involved in another field which lay open to the advance of German psychology—the field of education. Stanley Hall. Heidbreder, op. Hall organized the psychology laboratory at Johns Hopkins and, in , established the American Journal of Psychology, giving the "adherents of the new psychology not only a storehouse for contributions both experimental and theoretical, but a sense of solidarity and independence.

In he played a leading role in founding the American Psychological Association. Hall became known for his intensive studies of child development which directly fostered the child study movement in this country and in he published his masterwork, the two-volume Adolescence: Its Psychology and Its Relations to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion, and Education,5 welding experimental psychology to child education.

Hall was also instrumental in furthering the career of a man who was to have an unusually profound effect on the course of American educa4. Murphy and Kovach, op. He spent a year studying under Hall, and received his doctorate from J ohns Hopkins in He taught for ten years at the universities of Michigan and Minnesota and in the same year the National Education Association was formed , while a professor at Michigan, Dewey published Psychology, the first American textbook on the revised subject.

In late he was invited to join the faculty of the Rockefeller-endowed University of Chicago as head of the departments of philosophy, psychology, and pedagogy teaching.

For his role in the "Chicago School" of psychology see Schultz, op. See also Arthur G. Clark University Archives. John Dewey.

Edward Lee Thorndike: "Subjects such as arithmetic, language, and history include content that is intrinsically of little value. The Impress 17 could apply psychological principles and experimental techniques to the study of learning. The laboratory opened in January, , as the Dewey School, later to become known as the Laboratory School of the University of Chicago. For Dewey, the school was a place "where his theories of education could be put into practice, tested, and scientifically evaluated.

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By the end of the first world war, Americans would notice increasingly a change in the way their children were being educated. In the succeeding decades, the same schools that once nurtured the American dream would become infested with drugs and crime, and high schools would be graduating students who could barely read, spell, or do simple arithmetic. This report details the origins of a national metamorphosis, yet it is hardly definitive. Major changes in American education, along the same lines as those described herein and, in many cases, overlapping them , were wrought by the great Carnegie and Ford "philanthropies" and by a host of individuals i. These initial and somewhat unexpected findings, however incomplete, are released in order to help others analyse more clearly this tragic transformation of the national character.

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