JAMES RACHELS EGOISM AND MORAL SKEPTICISM PDF

Review Questions. Explain the legend of Gyges. What questions about morality are raised by the What questions about morality are raised by the story?

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What is it all about and why is it important. Chapter Review: For me, this chapter is all about teaching what selfishness and what unselfishness is. In this chapter, it discusses The Legend of Gyges is all about a shepherd who found a ring in a fissure cause by an earthquake, which the ring can make the wearer invisible and enable him to go anywhere and do anything undetected. Gyges use the power of the ring to gain entry to the Royal Palace where he seduced the Queen and murdered the King and subsequently seized the throne.

In this case, it simply describes men are selfish because of their self-interests and selfishness is an egoism. Egoism has two views, the psychological egoism and ethical egoism. Psychological Egoism is the view that all men are selfish in everything that they do, that is, that the only motive from which anyone ever acts is self-interest. Ethical Egoism is, by contrast, a normative view about how men ought to act.

It is the view that, regardless of how men do in fact behave, they have no obligation to do anything except what it is in their own interests. This chapter explains that it is up to the person whether he would do something just for his self-interest or for the benefit of the majority or the many.

Integrative Questions: 2. What is psychological egoism? What is ethical egoism? Who are the egoists? What is ethical altruism? Review Questions: 1.

Explain the legend of Gyges. What questions about morality are raised by the story? The Legend of Gyses is all about a shepherd who found a ring in a fissure cause by an earthquake, which the ring can make the wearer invisible and enable him to go anywhere and do anything undetected.

The questions about morality that are raised in the story are: How will the so-called virtuous man behave? Distinguish between psychological and ethical egoism.

Rachels discusses two arguments for psychological egoism. What are these arguments and how does he reply to them? Rachels reaction to this is that the argument is so bad that it would not deserve to be taken seriously except for the fact that so many otherwise intelligent people have been taken in by it. The second argument is, since so-called unselfish actions always produce a sense of self-satisfaction in the agent and since this sense of satisfaction is a pleasant state of consciousness, it follows that the point of action is really to achieve a pleasant state of consciousness, rather than to bring about any good for others.

Rachels reaction to this is that this argument suffers from defects similar to the previous one. Why should we think that merely because someone derives satisfaction from helping others this makes him selfish? What three commonplace confusions does Rachels detects in the thesis of psychological egoism? State the arguments for saying that ethical egoism is inconsistent.

The arguments for saying that ethical egoism is inconsistent are: To say that any action or policy of action is right entails that it is right for anyone in the same sort of circumstances. I cannot, for example, say that it is right for me to lie to you, and yet object when you lie to me. I cannot hold that it is all right for me to drink your beer and then complain when you drink mine. How can the egoist reply?

The egoist, no doubt, will not be happy with this. Discussion Questions: 1. Are genuine egoists rare, as Rachels claims? Genuine egoists are not rare according to Rachels because he explains that most of the people are doing anything to help others and not just for self-interest and it is a fact. Is such a view immoral or not? For me, it is not immoral, if you believe that what you are doing are for others then do it. Share this:.

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james rachels: egoism and moral scepticism - jiliannemontano

Vumi Rachels Psychological and Ethical Egoism Both of these are negative when it comes to real life application, no matter how much sense they may or not make. Check out my sandbox. This article has no associated abstract. Page Tools Insert links Insert links to other pages or uploaded files. The good side is still winning. Either way, yes, the things we do all have some underlying benefit for ourselves, but it is not a good thing to look at the human race as people only trying to do things for their own benefit.

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James Rachels: Egoism and Moral Skepticism

These two ethical standpoints are different in that psychological egoism is more about how people think while ethical egoism is about how people ought to think. Both, though, are hard concepts to believe anyone in the human race can truly hold. Psychological egoism is the idea that all men are selfish, and that we only do things for our own self-interests. Ethical egoism is the idea that people ought to only do things for their self-interests, and that we should only feel obligated to do things for ourselves, regardless of the effect it may have on others. Both of these ideas seem pretty self-centered and disgustingly inhumane. In my opinion, they are.

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James Rachels, Egoism and Moral Skepticism

What is it all about and why is it important. Chapter Review: For me, this chapter is all about teaching what selfishness and what unselfishness is. In this chapter, it discusses The Legend of Gyges is all about a shepherd who found a ring in a fissure cause by an earthquake, which the ring can make the wearer invisible and enable him to go anywhere and do anything undetected. Gyges use the power of the ring to gain entry to the Royal Palace where he seduced the Queen and murdered the King and subsequently seized the throne. In this case, it simply describes men are selfish because of their self-interests and selfishness is an egoism. Egoism has two views, the psychological egoism and ethical egoism.

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