HELIOTROPIUM CURASSAVICUM PDF

Boraginaceae is a family displaying a range of differences in habit, leaf, inflorescence, flower and fruit morphology. The species are mainly herbs, but shrubs or trees, usually multi-stemmed, also occur. Their life cycles may be annual, multiseasonal or perennial. The stems of the herbaceous species are erect, procumbent lying on the ground without rooting at the nodes or decumbent spreading horizontally at first but then growing upwards. The plants are variously hairy. Setae stiff hairs with 1- or 2- or 3-layered, multicellular bases, unbranched or branched hairs and unbranched multicellular glandular hairs occur.

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Boraginaceae is a family displaying a range of differences in habit, leaf, inflorescence, flower and fruit morphology.

The species are mainly herbs, but shrubs or trees, usually multi-stemmed, also occur. Their life cycles may be annual, multiseasonal or perennial. The stems of the herbaceous species are erect, procumbent lying on the ground without rooting at the nodes or decumbent spreading horizontally at first but then growing upwards.

The plants are variously hairy. Setae stiff hairs with 1- or 2- or 3-layered, multicellular bases, unbranched or branched hairs and unbranched multicellular glandular hairs occur.

The leaves are simple, with or without a leaf stalk. The inflorescences are often coiled at the apex, uncoiling as the flowers open. The corolla is sympetalous having petals which are partly fused ; the throat may be naked, hairy, with pouch-like swellings gibbosities or has fornices small scales present.

The color of the corolla varies from white, yellow, shades of blue and purple to brownish red or pink. The stamens are exserted or included, borne on the corolla. The fruit is a capsule or drupes of four 1-seeded nutlets, the nutlets are glabrous or variously ornamented.

Distribution and habitat The family Boraginaceae comprises about genera and species, distributed throughout the tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions of the world. A broad family concept is followed here, regarding the families Hydrophyllaceae and Lennoaceae as synonyms of Boraginaceae.

Boraginaceae is only a medium-sized family 21 genera and species in the Flora of southern Africa FSA compared to the largest family Asteraceae genera and 2 species , the members are widespread over the area. They are therefore found in a variety of habitats, often inhabiting disturbed places like road verges and are thus easily collected and recorded.

Different types of plant distribution patterns are found among members of the family Boraginaceae in southern Africa. Cordia, the largest genus in the family with an estimated species is pantropical with about eight species occurring in southern Africa Besides Lobostemon and Echiostachys, which is more or less endemic in the Western Cape winter rainfall , all other genera occur either elsewhere in Africa or in the world.

The genera Anchusa, Cynoglossum, Lappula, Lithospermum and Myosotis have indigenous members described from southern Africa with their nearest relatives in Europe and Asia.

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