If the attack fails, engineers must be prepared to conduct rapid fortification and obstacle activity in support of the hasty defense. In this role, POZs will perform as they do in offensive combat and emplace mines in accordance with the overall defensive plan. Protection against counterattack In planning the offensive employment of the command, the threat commander constantly evaluates the battlefield for suitable enemy counterattack areas. Areas identified as favorable are usually those which would detract from the maneuver of the combined arms teams, and be considered vital for mine employment in order to deny the enemy commander tactical initiative. Engaging in a battle of dispersion and maneuver necessarily creates extensive exposed flanks. In threat theory, preventing enemy exploitation of such a condition relies, on two actions: rapid execution of combat tasks before the enemy can react, and protection of flanks by extensive minefield.
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Majin The possible adverse effect on the command and the local population, however, must also be taken into account. Forest vegetation is the primary concern in cross-country movement. Engineers in amphibious APCs accompany initial assault waves and assist in reducing defenses on the far bank. Engineer elements are also combined with other branch elements in operational groupings to perform specific tasks. The mission of engineers is to create conditions of movement which will allow this noticeably complicated countetmobility to occur counteemobility, and enable the threat commander to enjoy total tactical initiative while denying it to the enemy.
Countermobility on the Battlefield Since threat offensive tactics are predicated upon high rates of movement and engineers are paramount in implementing this movement, friendly counterreconnaissance action directed against IRDs will deprive the threat commander of engineer intelligence vital to executing the tactical plan. For example, destruction of a major highway through a wooded area is largely ineffective if any nearby road or opening that offers a ready bypass route is left open.
Equally important is the desirability of conducting mine breaching operations covertly, whenever possible, to preserve surprise. Existing obstacles are highly variable in effectiveness from place to place and have frequent gaps or openings between, and lanes roads, bridges through or over them.
Has the high diesel fuel consumption rate been planned for? Given the fluidity of combat under such conditions, a mine obstacle offers far greater flexibility in employment than antitank ditches, tetrahedrons, and other such relatively static obstacles. A few of the more obvious are:.
The galleries lead under the abutments of bridges or under the roadway and terminate in a demolition chamber or cavity. No significant differences exist between construction of a triangular or a rectangular ditch. Other members of the IRD select and mark concealed approach routes; obtain hydrographic data by using depth finders and water current meters; determine river bank conditions and the presence of existing or military obstacles; identify enemy defenses and conduct bogus reconnaissance activity in other areas to avoid disclosing the main crossing sector.
It should not be used to describe conventional mines which have been laid without regard to pattern. Other effects, although not necessarily obstacle effects, also must be considered. Because military assets are always limited, however, denial operations must ocuntermobility planned and coordinated carefully to insure the military value of the target, and to determine cuntermobility priority of destruction.
Rather, there will be a series of offensive and counteroffensive axes in the form of spurs and salients. Mine warfare is undergoing a tremendous evolutionary process. In other words, saving time is more important than saving livescountermobbility fewer lives would be lost if the threat commander is allowed to exercise battlefield initiative and dictate the terms of combat. Constructed obstacles should be emplaced prior to the start of the battle, or a terrain feature away from direct engagement areas, so that observed fire cannot disrupt the emplacement process.
The amount of slope is usually expressed as a percentage, which is the number of meters of elevation difference per meters of horizontal distance. The number of charges for the friendly side row can be calculated by the formula:. The triple line charge will clear a 6-meter- wide path along the entire length of the charge.
Engineers mark minefield lanes and provide traffic control through the minefield. Suitable bottoms are restricted to those that are sandy, gravelly, or rocky; but even sandy bottoms may give way under the weight of vehicles, or boulders may prevent vehicular movement. The standard planning factor for complete installation of a beam post obstacle 12 meters 39 feet in width, three double rows deep requiring a total of 54 I-beam postsdictates that two squads, each with nine members, require 2 hours to complete the task.
The use of countermobility by friendly forces must be integrated into the concept of operations not only to impede threat mobility, but to increase the kill probability of friendly firepower.
Additionally, engineers are responsible for traffic control and direction at all crossing sites. Threat military doctrine dictates that, whenever possible, water obstacles along a broad front are crossed at multiple points without pause in the march or the advance.
The overall teamwork and planning process are both evident and essential with each facet of countermobility. No one substance is universally applicable therefore, technical familiarity with the target is required. Threat military principles are observed in order of precedence.
Analysis of the mission is a critical item in planning obstacles. Both categories of mines have a distinct place on the battlefield and complement each other. For example, a crater can be used to close a road left open through a minefield when all friendly troops have cleared.
FM 5-102 COUNTERMOBILITY PDF
Mozshura Scatterable mines will be employed against enemy units anywhere on the battlefield. The demolition material required for a prechamber shaft system is stored in a nearby 5-ton bunker complex and is earmarked for the sole use at its designated obstacle site. In the defense, ADM is used to create key obstacles, block dangerous avenues of approach, and deny the enemy use of important installations and facilities. Tactically, the denial of threat countermine actions serves to deprive cuontermobility threat commander of the tactical initiative which his entire operation plan is based. Can mines be buried?
FM 5-102 COUNTERMOBILITY.pdf