This indicates that Telugu poetry existed during or around the 6th century. This was a popular one and referred by many poets. P Sastry also points out that many Jain works could have been destroyed. Nannaya was the first to establish a formal grammar of written Telugu. Many scientific[ relevant? According to many literary critics[ who?

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This wrong impression has been created because of the undue emphasis placed earlier on a few scholarly works of the above type to the neglect of the vast treasury of classical literature in various other genres in which genuine lyrical and thoughtful poetry is quite abundant.

As a matter of fact even in Sanskrit literature with its high reputation with poets like Kalidasa, Sanskrit poetry became more and more pedantic and artificial. As against such prejudice or hasty opinion, one has to remember that after Baudelaire, objective poetry has gained more attention and the lyric itself has acquired a new meaning.

Even classical poets are re-evaluated and Horace is now considered as a lyrical poet. Whatever may be the judgement regarding Sanskrit literature, ably defended by A.

Basham postea , Telugu has a continuous tradition of lyrical poetry in the form of Satakam, a literary genre in which Telugu is probably the richest among modern Indian languages. A Satakam literally means a collection of hundred or a few more verse by the same poet which are independent in nature but composed in the same mood or on a single broad theme. In Sanskrit literature the collection of three such satakas by Bhartruhari on Niti, Sringara and vairagya is the most well known example besides Amaru Satakam which has received universal acclaim.

Telugu has a large collection of Satakams, estimated to be over three thousand in classical literature and like Bhartruhari or Bihari, many poets owe their reputation mostly to their Satakams alone. Vemana Satakam for instance is known all over South India. As compared to the larger poetical works like Mahakavyas, a Satakam offers greater scope to the poet to express his genuine thoughts and feeling in such a degage collection of verses.

Lyrical poetry of high literary value is found in some of the Telugu Satakams even if many of them are didactic. For the latter reason, some of the avant grade poets and committed Marxists who have little use for classical poetry, have employed this medium to propagate their views.

Moreover, school children in Andhra study selections from a few popular Satakams as moral education e. Vemana Satakam, Sumati Satakam and Bhaskara Satakam and a few stanzas from them from the only means by which a layman gets acquainted with classical literature. To qualify as a Telugu Satakam, it should have a common refrain, which is usually the last line of the verse or a phrase at the end.

It is generally in the same metre or related metre e. Utpalamala or Champakamala. There is also unity in its conception viz. Many of the Satakams were probably composed at leisure but great poets are known to have composed them at a stretch extempore in literary contests. The earliest Telugu Satakam-like work dates back to the 12th century. Mallikarjuna Panditharadhya, a great Saivite social reformer and contemporary of Basaveswara, the founder of VeeraSaivism in, has left behind 49 verses out of which are addressed to Lord Siva.

It is probable that these Satakams were inspired by the Chandrachudamani Satakam, of Nagavarmacharya 11th Cent in the Kannada Language.

Authorship of this well known work is sometimes attributed to Baddena a minor princeling who has to his credit another work on political science antea but the style is very dissimilar. Sumati Satakam needs no introduction whosoever has composed it.

Vemana was greatly admired by the British Civil servants and savants like J. Dubois, C. Grover, H. Bavars, W. Campbell, C. Barnett and J. Gribel Bharati, Nov. Narayana Murthi in California for a fresh translation of his poetry. Brown, civil servant and the first European to learn Telugu and compose a Dictionary, has translated selections from them into English and Latin in the 19th century, Vemana belongs to probably to the 17th century but his date and personal life are controversial.

He was more a saint with a large following than literary figure in his day. His Satakam may be a collection of impromptu verses having a common refrain. Not all the verses attributed to him may be genuine. Starting with collections of devotional hymns and invocations to favorite deities, the Telugu Satakam has blossomed into several fields so that it is difficult to classify the vast body of Satakam literature.

Satakams of pure humour and parody were written on Pakoda, Visana Karra fan , Chipuru pulla broom stick and such other comic themes. Unfortunately he had a fascination for the forbidden word. A special feature of these later satakams is colloquial diction and a total break with archaic and obsolete language. Satakam medium has so popular ie was being increasingly employed for various purposes, including lexicons and grammatical works.

There is a satakam on Salt Satyagraha by Garikaati Mallavadhani. In the modern world several poets employed the Satakam form for their autobiographies. Chellapilla Venkata Sastri has described his life in Jataka Charya, a well known autobiographical satakam.

Sumati Satakam.


Telugu Brahmin Tree

He performed a sacrifice to beget sons and as a result, his queens became pregnant. When sage Vishwamitra takes Rama for killing the demons in the forest, Lakshmana accompanies them and goes to Mithila with them. Lakshmana is specially attached to Rama. They had two sons— Angada and Chandraketu. Later, when Rama is exiled for fourteen years on the insistence of Kaikeyi, Lakshmana leaves his wife Urmila and joins Rama and Sita in exile. In Panchvati, Lakshmana also builds a hut for Rama and Sita to live in. When Sita asks Rama to fetch a magical golden deer for her, Rama asks Lakshmana to stand guard as he sensed danger and evil.


Telugu literature


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