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Not until the sixteenth century was canon used to describe the musical form Mann, Wilson, and Urquhart n. The earliest known canons are English rounds , a form called rondellus starting in the 14th century Mann, Wilson, and Urquhart n.

In the 14th century many canons were written in Italy under the name caccia, and occasionally French chansons of that period used canon technique. In later periods the canon played a less important role in entertainment,[ citation needed ] with a few notable exceptions e.

Canons are classified by various traits: the number of voices, the interval at which each successive voice is transposed in relation to the preceding voice, whether voices are inverse , retrograde , or retrograde-inverse ; the temporal distance between each voice, whether the intervals of the second voice are exactly those of the original or if they are adjusted to fit the diatonic scale , and the tempo of successive voices.

However, canons may use more than one of the above methods. How voices in a canon are named Although, for clarity, this article uses leader and follower s to denote the leading voice in a canon and those that imitate it, musicological literature also uses the traditional Latin terms dux and comes for "leader" and "follower", respectively. The terms "proposta" for the leader and "riposta" for the follower are also common terms.

This terminology may be used in combination with a similar terminology for the interval between each voice, different from the terminology in the following paragraph. Another standard designation is "Canon: Two in One", which means two voices in one canon.

While "Canon: Six in Three" means six voices with three simultaneous canons, and so on. Simple A simple canon also known as a round imitates the leader perfectly at the octave or unison.

Interval Beginning of psalm motet De profundis by Josquin des Prez , featuring a canon at the fourth between the two upper voices in the first six bars. Contrapuntal derivations The follower is by definition a contrapuntal derivation of the leader. Canon by inversion An inversion canon also called an al rovescio canon has the follower moving in contrary motion to the leader.

Where the leader would go down by a particular interval, the follower goes up by that same interval Kennedy Alternative names for this type are canon per recte et retro or canon per rectus et inversus Kennedy Mensuration and tempo canons In a mensuration canon also known as a prolation canon , or a proportional canon , the follower imitates the leader by some rhythmic proportion.

The follower may double the rhythmic values of the leader augmentation or sloth canon or it may cut the rhythmic proportions in half diminution canon. Phasing involves the application of modulating rhythmic proportions according to a sliding scale. In the 20th century, Conlon Nancarrow composed complex tempo or mensural canons, mostly for the player piano as they are extremely difficult to play.

Larry Polansky has an album of mensuration canons, Four-Voice Canons. As each voice of the canon arrives at its end it can begin again, in a perpetuum mobile fashion; e. Such a canon is also called a round or, in medieval Latin terminology, a rota. Sumer is icumen in is one example of a piece designated rota. Additional types include the spiral canon, accompanied canon, and double or triple canon.

Often some kind of riddle is given as a hint. This means that the cantus firmus must be sung first in full note values, then in halved values and retrograde since it is a crab. They are not very common, though examples of mirror canons can be found in the works of Bach, Mozart e.

Table canon Main article: Table canon A Table canon is a retrograde and inverse canon meant to be placed on a table in between two musicians, who both read the same line of music in opposite directions. As both parts are included in each single line, a second line is not needed. Bach wrote a few table canons Benjamin , Rhythmic canon Olivier Messiaen employed a technique which he called "rhythmic canon", a polyphony of independent strands in which the pitch material differs.

Each canon additionally obeys the overall structure and harmonic sequence common to all variations in the composition. Contemporary canons In his early work, such as Piano Phase and Clapping Music , Steve Reich used a process he calls phasing which is a "continually adjusting" canon with variable distance between the voices, in which melodic and harmonic elements are not important, but rely simply on the time intervals of imitation Mann, Wilson, and Urquhart n.


Canonic studies

Shakabar Write a customer review. Browse titles authors subjects uniform titles series callnumbers dewey numbers starting from optional. Views Read Edit View history. Amazon Inspire Digital Educational Resources. During their discussions about counterpoint, Ziehn showed to Busoni how Bach, in order to create a quadruple fugue, would have combined the initial theme from the Art of Fugue with the three themes for the triple fugue. T to Z Bernhard Ziehn. Mit kleiner 6 Ungarisches D m.


Canone (musica)


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